Resin related subjects (e.g. MakerJuice G+, 3DM ABS, Spot HT) including settings, material properties, and pigmentation.

Resin Concepts

Basic Composition

Polymer

A combination of monomer(s), polymer(s), and diluent(s) in an initially liquid that will form the solid composition of the printed part after they are polymerized.

Photoinitiator

When exposed to a certain spectrum of light (varies depending on the initiator, usually UV and near-UV), this chemical will emit free radicals that will trigger polymerization of the polymer.

Inhibitor

Polymerization inhibitor usually mixed into the based polymer blend at the time of manufacture to prevent premature curing. Curing is exothermic, so lack of an inhibitor makes the polymer hazardous to transport at industrial quantity. The inhibitor consumes oxygen, and an atmospheric concentration of oxygen is required for the inhibitor to function properly.

Filler

Additional materials added that affect the material properties of the resulting solid, for example glass fibers or talc.

Pigment/Dye

Colors the material to control the penetration of curing spectrum light, controlling light bleed. Pigments are fine opaque powders that a dispersed in the resin as a suspension and can both absorb and reflect light. Large amounts of pigment can cause it to act as filler, typically softening the material. Dyes will dissolve into the resin leaving it transparent but tinted. Some dyes, like Mayzo OB+, act in the UV spectrum and don't block visible light. Dyes are often sold pre-dissolved in some kind of solvent, and if the concentration is low, it may not be possible to reach effective levels of dye without putting too much solvent into the resin. Some powdered aniline dyes can dissolve directly into resin without being carried by solvent.

Qualities

Resin qualities are part of, but do not completely determine the necessary print settings. See "Determining Settings for a Print" for more detailed coverage of settings.

Exposure Time

Speed

Detail

Light Bleed

Shrinkage

Toxicity

Tasks

Cleanup

Resin beads up in water (kind of like oil, but it sinks and doesn't separate as well). It will bead up even better in soapy water. It's possible to clean up resin from containers that you can flush with plenty of water in a sink using only dish soap by iteratively soaping and rinsing to first get the resin off the surface and then flushing it. This mechanism, however, is different than what you might expect from washing dishes, since soap doesn't cause the resin to become miscible with water.

Pigments in resin may be held in some carrier that does not wash with soap very well and can seem to get irreversably stuck to rough surfaces. This isn't an issue for cleaning the vat, which is pretty smooth everywhere, but can cause a slight mess in your sink.

Isopropyl rubbing alcohol (IPA) will dissolve resin and pigment. It can be harsh on the vat, in particular it can craze extruded acrylic (although the Kudo3D vats are made with cast acrylic, which is more resistant to IPA). Once you get a hang of washing the vat with soap, IPA should be unnecessary. However, it is very useful for cleaning up the sink or other household surfaces if you spill or drip resin accidentally. IPA is very effective for cleaning accidental drips on carpet.

Modifying

Specific Formulations

Commercially Available Types

  • Makerjuice G+
  • Makerjuice SF
  • 3D Materials (3DM) ABS
  • 3D Materials (3DM) Castable
  • MadeSolid Vorex
  • MadeSolid MS
  • Spot-A HT (Hard & Tough)
  • FunToDo Industrial Blend

Custom Blends

Autodesk's experimental "solid block" capable resin

Autodesk, maker of the Ember printer, has published the recipe for their PR48 resin under an open source license. The resin components are (all percentages are wt/wt):

  1. Oligomer: Allnex Ebecryl 8210 39.776%, Sartomer SR 494 39.776%
  2. Photoinitiator: Esstech TPO+ (2,4,6-Trimethylbenzoyl-diphenyl-phosphineoxide) 0.400%
  3. Reactive diluent: Rahn Genomer 1122 19.888%
  4. UV blocker: Mayzo OB+ (2,2’-(2,5-thiophenediyl)bis(5-tert-butylbenzoxazole)) (also known as Fluorescent Brightener 184, CAS# 7128-64-5) 0.160 %

For more information, see http://spark.autodesk.com/blog/embers-resin-now-open-source